That the Division of Labour is Limited by the Extent of the Market
The word VALUE, it is to be observed, has two different meanings, and sometimes expresses the utility of some particular object, and sometimes the power of purchasing other goods which the possession of that object conveys. The one may be called 'value in use ;' the other, 'value in exchange.' The things which have the greatest value in use have frequently little or no value in exchange; and on the contrary, those which have the greatest value in exchange have frequently little or no value in use. Nothing is more useful than water: but it will purchase scarce any thing; scarce any thing can be had in exchange for it. A diamond, on the contrary, has scarce any value in use; but a very great quantity of other goods may frequently be had in exchange for it.*84
- It is impossible to pass very quickly from one kind of work to another; that is carried on in a different place, and with quite different tools.
- A country weaver,*31 who cultivates a small farm, must lose a good deal of time in passing from his loom to the field, and from the field to his loom.
- When the two trades can be carried on in the same workhouse, the loss of time is no doubt much less.
- It is even in this case, however, very considerable. A man commonly saunters a little in turning his hand from one sort of employment to another.
- When he first begins the new work he is seldom very keen and hearty; his mind, as they say, does not go to it
- The habit of sauntering and of indolent careless application, which is naturally, or rather necessarily acquired by every country workman who is obliged to change his work and his tools every half hour
- To apply his hand in twenty different ways almost every day of his life; renders him almost always slothful and lazy, and incapable of any vigorous application